most valuable commodity: gold. Indeed, the term wilderness, used liberally by English settlers across North America to describe the continents forests, was synonymous with wasteland or desert. Planters relied on slaves for more than labor. Slaves imported to the region brought in new strains of malarial parasites and either slaves or slave traders eventually introduced yellow fever, a much more deadly mosquito-borne disease, into the town of Charleston. For nearly three hundred years before the American Revolution, the colonial South was a kaleidoscope of different people and cultures. By the time Europeans arrived in the South, old fields, open forests subjected to periodic burns, and local fluctuations jenny holzer 10 inflammatory essays in game animal populations all attested to the native presence. (Students will often ask simply, Why did Indians lose?). The Broad Arrow Policy, instituted in the South in 1729, allowed officials to mark certain trees with an inverted v and reserve them for the Kings use. The Souths native people had well-defined hunting territories, fishing grounds, and agricultural plots which they vigorously defended against encroachment.
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By far, however, English people derived their greatest woodland profits from the Souths vast longleaf pine forest. Old World diseases might have reduced some southern Indian populations by as much as 90 percent by the mid-1700s. Native culture also did not encourage the unrestricted accumulation of immigration and canada essay land or other material goods. As one of my students explained, its like they Europeans came to rob a candy store and accidentally killed a bunch of people. Only when Indians went to wareither against each other or against one of the European powersdid deer and other get a prolonged respite from native hunters. By the mid-eighteenth century, spring floods spawned by excessive runoff, annually threatened coastal communities. In regions of intensive agriculture, such as along the river floodplains of the piedmont and mountains, Indian farmers sometimes depleted soils and had to move their villages to more suitable lands. Lumber from live oaks became important to the shipbuilding industry. To colonists, monoculture appeared more civilized, but it was ecologically less sophisticated than the Indian system and therefore more subject to a greater variety of problems. Years of living in isolation from the diseases of Europe left the Souths native people highly vulnerable to infection and wherever explorers and settlers went, Indians died. Some of the larger native cultures probably numbered in the tens of thousands.
Yet all residents of the region shared two important traits. First, they lived and worked in a natural environment unlike any other in the American colonies. In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone nowadays than in the past. It was an environment. The Ester Boserup Thesis Prize The Ester Boserup Thesis Prize will be awarded to Emilija Zabilit for her PhD dissertation Living with Others: Subjectivity, Relatedness and Health among Urban Poor in Delhi.